What Do Those Restaurant and Cooking Terms Mean?  Hints, Tips and Tricks  1419 reads


--A--
Abaisse- A piece of dough rolled to required size
Abattis- Winglets, giblets of poultry
Abricot- Apricot
Agiter- to stir
Agneau- Lamb
Aigrefin- Haddock
Aiguillettes- Meat of fish cut into strips
Ail- Garlic
Airelle Rouge- cranberry
A la- In the style of, ex- (a la Francaise =in the style of France)
a la carte- A list of food items each priced seperately
a la mode- In the fashion
al dente- firm, to the bite
Allumettes- Match sized knife cut, (usually potatoes)same size as julienne)
Anchoois- Anchovy
Anglais- English style, (meaning bland-plain cooked food)
Annoncer- To announce(call out orders)
Antipasto- Italian cold appetizer
Argenteuil- District in France known for its asparigus
Aromates- Herbs, spices & flavorings (aromatic)
Arrowroot- Starch obtained from the arrowroot plant; used to thicken
Artichaut- Artichoke
Asperge- Asparagus
Aspic- A clear jelly made from the concentrated liquid in which meat, poultry or fish was cooked.
Au bleu- A term to describe the cooking method of cooking live fish in court bouillon
Au Four- In the oven
Au jus- THe natural juice


--B--
Bain-Marie- A double boiler used for cooking (insulated from direct heat)
Ballotine- Stuffed boneless game or domestic bird
Bar- 1. Bass(fish) 2.gin mill
Barder- To cover meats with fat during cooking proces
Baron- Mutton or lamb; the saddle with legs attached
Barquette- A sall boat shaped piece of pastry or mold
Bar raye- Rock salmon
Basilic- Basil
Baste- To moisten the meat in the oven, to aviod over-drying
Batter- A liquid dough, usually thin enough to pour
Batterie de cuisine- Equipment found in the kitchen
Becassine- snipe
Bechamel- Basic milk sauce(white); one of the five mother sauces
Beignets- Fritters
Beurre- Butter
Buerre Manie- Butter (kneaded) used for thickening sauces
Bien Cuit- well cooked
Bisque- A thick cream soup made from shellfish ex; Lobster, crab, etc
Blanc- White
Blanc d'Oeuf- Egg whites
Blanchir- To blanch, to par cook by immersion in water briefly, and "shocking" in ice water
Blanquette- Ragout or stew made of veal or lamb in a rich VELOUTE sauce
Bleu- Blue, applies to very rare-cooked meat
Boeuf- Beef
Bombes- ice cream dessert
Bordure- Border(usually applies to plate presentation)
Bouchees- small puff pastries
Boudin, Noir- Blood sausage, or black pudding
Bouillabaisse- a fish stew, naitive to southern France
Bouillir, Bouilli- To boil, Boiled
Bouillon- Reduced meat stock
Boulanger- Baker
Bouquet Garni- thyme, bay leafs, celery, parsley & leek tied together used to flavor stocks/soups
Bourgeoise- Meats served with vegetables
Bourgogne- Burgundy
Braiser- to braise
Braisiere- braising pan or stewing pan
Brider- to truss or tie meator poultry
Brochette- Cubes of meat on a skewer;broiled
Bronoise- Vegetables cut into fine, small dice; madefrom julienne
Brut- course
Bruxelloise- In the Brussels style (with brussels sprouts)



--C--
Cabillaud- Cod fish
Caille- Quail
Canapes- Pieces of toasted bread, garnished & served as appetizers
Canard- duck
Canard Sauvage- Wild duck
Cantaloupe- melon
Caramel- Melted sugar to the brown stage
Caramelize to- to cook to release natural sugars, or until reaching brown color
Carbonnade- braised steak
Carcasse- Bone structure without the meat
Carpe- carp
Carre- Rack of veal or lamb
Carrelet- Flounder
Cartouche- a greased round of paper used to cover meats during cooking process
Casserole- A fireproof dish, or food prepared in a casserole dish
Cassis- Black currant & black currant liquer
Cassoulet- Dish containing beans, pork, mutton, goose, or duck
Cayenne- a hot red pepper
Celeri-rave- Celeriac or celery root
Cepe- Edible fungus, native to the mushroom family
Cerefeuil- Chervil
Cerise- Cherry
Cervelle- Brain
Champignon- Mushroom
Chanterelles- Mushrooms
Chantilly- whipped cream sweetened wit sugar
Chapelure- Bread crumbs
Charcutier- Butcher and sausage maker
Charcuterie- Butcher shop
Chateaubriand- Double steak cut from the beef tenderloin
Chaud-froid- hot, cold; Food coated with cold, white sauce
Chef de Cuisine- Chef in charge/executive chef
Chef de partie- Chef in charge of a section of the kitchen
Chevreuil- Venison
Chicoree- Endive
Chiffonnade- A ribbon like cut of leafy vegetables ie; lettuce
Chinoise- A cone- shaped strainer or sieve (also called a CHINA CAP
Chipolata- A type of small sausage or/a type of pastry used for eclairs
Choucroute- Saurkraut pickeled with salt & fermented
Chou-fleur- Cauliflower
Clouter- Onion cloute; an onion studded with cloves
Cocotte- An oven proof dish (small)
Commis- Apprentice in the kitchen or dining room
Compote- Stewed fruit
Concasser- to chop roughly(usually tomatoes)
Concombre- cucumber
Confiture- Jam
Coq au Vin- Chicken in which is cooked in a wine sauce
Coquille-Cooked and served in a shell
Coquille St Jaques- A scallop
Corbeille- Basket
Corser- To flavor and enrich
Cote- A cut of meat; a piece of meat attached to the rib(cote de boeuf)
Cotelette- cutlet
Couper- to cut
Coupes- small bowls
Courgette- Zucchini
Court-Bouillon- A poaching liquid used to cook fish, etc.
Creme- cream
Crevette-(rose)- Prawn
Crevette-(grise)- Shrimp
Croissants- Crescent shaped french rolls
Croquette- breaded, deep fried
Croustade- pastry crust
Croutons- toasted(usually fried) piececs of bread.
Cru- raw
Cuire- to cook
Cusine Brigade- Staff orginization set up within the kitchen
Cuit- cooked


--D--
Darne- a thick steak cut of salmon
Debarrasser- to clear away
Debrider- to remove trussing twine after cooking process
Deglacer- To dilute the roastin plaque with an acid(wine-etc)
Degraisser- To skin off grease from stews, sauces etc.
Demi-glace- Half glaze, usually meaning Brown Sauce made from veal bones
Demi-Tasse- meaning "half Cup"or, a small cup of black coffee
Demi Moore- actress
Depouiller- To remove scum from the surface of a cooking liquid
Des- to dice
Desosser To debone poultry or fish
Diablotins- Small gnocchi or croutons topped with grated cheese and browned
Dinde- Turkey
Dindonneau- Young fresh turkey
Dredge- To coat food with flour
du Jour- meaning literaly "of the day"
Duxelle- Chopped shallots and mushrooms seasoned, cooked in butter


--E--
Echalote- Shallot
Eclairs- Choux pastry baked in the size of thick fingers, then filled with cream
Emincer- To mince
en- In, meaning "served in"
Entrecote- Steak cut fron the sirloin, between the ribs
Entree- United States term, meaning the main course
Entremets- Desserts, or sweets
Entremetier- a chef in which prepares vegetables & egg dishes
Epaule- shoulder
Eperlan- Smelt
Epinards- Spinach
Escalope- a slice; or scallop
Escargot- edible snail
Espagnole- Basic brown sauce
Estouffade- Brown meat stock
Estragon- tarragon
Etuver- To cook slowly covered with a minimum amount of liquid


--F--
Fagot- Faggot, Bouquet garni
Faisan- Pheasant
Farce- forcemeat
Fenouil- fennel
Filet- Fillet; a thin cut of meat, fish, poultry removed from the bone
Filet mignon- Small steak from the tenderloin of beef
Fines herbs- A fine mixture of herbs used to season
Flamber- To flame
Flan- open tart
Fletan- Halibut
Foie- Liver
Foie gras- Goose liver
Fond- Basic stock or essences
Fondant- Thick liquid sugar icing
Fond Blanc- white stock
Fond brun- Brown stock
Fonds de Artichaut- artichoke bottoms
Fondue- a cheese dish of melted cheese. Pieces of bread are dipped
Fontaine- A well made in dry flour to add liquid
Fouetter- to whisk
Fraise- strawberry
Framboise- Raspberry
Frangipane- a custard-like pastry creme
Frappe- iced
Frapper- to ice
Fricandeau- said fast, sounds like a swear word. -Veal braised until very tender
Fricassee- a white stew
Frit- Fried
Fumet- Concentrated stock or essence from fish or shellfish


--G--
Galantines- Stuffed chicken or veal in the form of a large roll, usually glazed with CHAUD-FROID sauce and decorated for cold buffets
Garbure- a thick vegetable soup
Garde-Manger- Cold kitchen, a chef who is in charge of the cold foods in the kitchen
Garniture- to garnish
Gibier- game
Gigot d'Agneau- Leg of lamb
Glace de Poisson- fish glaze
Glace de Viande- Meat glaze
Glacer- to; (a) freeze or chill (b)to cook to acquire a shiny surface (c) To slightly brown food under a salamander(broiler)
Gnocchi- Dumplings made from potatoes
Gratin- Browned surface of foods cooked in a hot oven or salamander
Groseille- Currant


--H--
Hacher- To chop finely
Haricot Blanc- Bean (white)
Haricot Vert- Grean bean
Jardiniere- A fresh mix of vegetables cut into julienne
Jaune d'Oeuf- Egg yolk
Jus- The natural juice of meat
Jus Lie- Thickened meat juice


--L--
Laiture- Lettuce
Langue- tongue
Lapin- rabbit
Lard- bacon or salt pork
Larder- To lard by inserting strips of fat into tough meat with a larding needle to make tender
Laurier- bay leaf
Liaison- A thicking or binding agent, commonly egg yolk or heavy cream to ticken soups & sauces
Lie- slightly thickened
Lier- To thicken (usually with egg yolk)


--M--
Macedoine- Diced, mixed vegetables or fruits
Maigre- lean
Mais- Maize, sweet corn
Maitre d'Hotel- Restaurant manager
Marquereau- Mackerel
Marinade- Blends of liquids & flavorings used in marinating to tenderize and flavor tough meat
Marmite- Stockpot
Marron- Chestnut
Medaillons- Round pieces of meat
Melanger- To mix two or more ingredients together
Menthe- Mint
Merluche- Hake
Meuniere- A method of cooking in which the meat of fish is dredged in flour and shallow fried in butter & served with sauce meuniere
Mirepoix- Diced vegetables and herbs used to flavor stocks, sauces &soups
Mise en place- Everything in its place. A means of kitchen orginization
Mollet- soft boiled egg
Monter- The beating of cream, eggwhites, etc
Monter au Beurre- "to mount with butter" to thicken sauces with pieces of cold, whole butter
Mouton- Mutton
Mulet- Mullet
Mur- ripe
Mure- Blackberry


--N--
Napper- to coat with sauce
Navet- Turnip
Noisette- A round piece of meat of veal or lamb tenderloin.(b)small potato balls
Nouilles- Noodles
Noques- flour dumplings


--O--
Ole- Goose
Oignon- onion
Oseille- Sorrel


--P--
Pailles- Straw (straw potatoes)
Panada- a binding agent
Paner- to coat with breadcrumbs;pane
Paprika- Hungarian & Spanish red pepper
Parer- To trim meat
Parfumer- a bouquet of aromatic herbs
Paysanne- Triangular shaped slices of vegetables
Peche- peach
Perche- Perch
Persil- parsley
Petits Fours- small fancy cakes, decorated & iced
Piccata- small veal cutlets
Piece montee- Centerpiece on a platter or buffet
Pilaf- a rice dish without meat
Plat- Plate or dish
Plongeur- Pot washer
plat du Jour- dish of the day
Poach- To cook in simmering liquid
Poire- Pear
Poivre- Pepper
Pomme- Apple
Pomme de terre- Potato
Porc- pork
Potage- Soup
Pot-au-feu- Rich soup with bountiful meats and vegetables
Potiron- pumpkin
Poule- Hen
Poisson- fish
Poussin- Young chicken
Profiteroles- Small balls made out of choux
Prune- plum
Puree- Mashed, sieved or blended


--Q--
Quartier- to quarter
Quenelles- dumplings made of different meats
Quiche- thick pie dough filled with a cooked egg mixture


--R--
Radis- Radish
Ragout- a rich stew made of meat or poultry
Railfort- Horseradish
Ramequin- A dish in which food is cooked and served
Ravioli- An Italian pasta filled with meat or cheeses
Reduction- The result of reducing by boiling down sauces to increase consistency, richness & flavor
Ris- sweetbreads
Romaine- Cos lettuce
Roquefort- A blue semi-soft French cheese
Rotir- to roast
Rotisseur- Roast cooking method
Rouget- red mullet
Roux- Thickening agent made of equal parts of whole butter and sifted flour, cooked
Royale- Type of cusstard cut into different shapes, used to garnish consumme
Russe- Stew pan


--S--
Sabayon- Dessert made of whipped eggs, sugar and wine
Sasir- to sear meat surfaces in hot fat
Salamandre- Salamander-Broiler; top fired grill
Salpicon- a mixture af finely diced meat of ham and mushrooms in sauce
Choucroute- saurkraut
Sauge- sage
Saumon- Salmon
Sauter- to "jump"; cooking by using high heat and tossing.
Sauteuse- Shallow pan with sloping sides(often confused with a sauter pan)
Sautoir- Round shallow heavy pan with straight walls & long handle
Selle- Saddle of lamb
Sorbet- a water ice served between meals to stimulate appetite
Sous Chef- Assistant to Executive Chef
Supreme- Breast of chicken, bone in


--T--
Table d'Hote- the set menu at a fixed price
Tasse- served in a cup
Terrine- earthenware casserole
Thon- tuna fish
Tournedos- a small steak from the center of the tenderloin
Tourner- To turn, To shape vegetables or potatoes with a knife
Trancher- to carve or slice
Truffle- a black fungus which grows underground in france

--V--
Veau- veal
Veloute- a roux thickened white stock; chicken, fish, or veal. "One of the mother sauces"
Viande- Meat
Vol-au-vent- Puff pastry in a shell in which ragout or fricassee is served
Volaille- Poultry


--Z--
Zabaglione- see Sabayon
Zest- The outer rind of citrus fruit

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