BAKING AND BAKING SCIENCE
PART TEN -(A-2) - COOKIES - FUNCTION OF INGREDIENTS, RECIPES AND DEMONSTRATIONS
Cookies, in combination with ice cream, make an excellent summer desert. They may be made in advance with no danger of spoilage and can be made in a great many varieties. Varieties depend upon the balance between four basic ingredients: flour, sugar, shortening, and liquids (milk and/oreggs). All cookies are more or less a variation of one basic formula. Because of its numerical balance of ingredients, the pound cake recipe could well serve as a basis for cookie recipes. Leavening agents, added to most varieties, have an effect on the size, color, and eating qualities. Additional ingredients are added for flavor and texture. There are two main types of cookies, hard and soft. Soft (soft batter) cookies contain a maximum amount of moisture. They may require a greater percentage of eggs to produce the necessary structure. Characteristics of good soft cookies are moistness and softness. Hard cookies contain a minimum amount of moisture. Desired characteristics of hard cookies are crispness and brittleness.
FUNCTION OF INGREDIENTS
Each ingredient used in cookie baking is employed for the specific characteristics it has and/or the result it has on the finished product. If these effects are understood, the ingredients may be selected with the assurance that the products produced will be good.
Flour is the principle structure builder or binding agent in most cookie formulas. It provides the framework around which the other ingredients are grouped in varying proportions. Flour is a toughening agent because when it comes in contact with the liquids in the formula, the flour proteins (gluten) form the main structure of the cookies. Either bread flour, pastry flour or cake flour can be used to make hard and soft cookies. Hard flour may cause some types of cookies to lack spread while cake flour may cause some cookies to spread too much. It is best to use the type of flour specified in the formula. If a recipe calls for pastry flour and it is not available, use 50 percent bread flour and 50 percent cake flour or use all purpose flour.
Sugar in some form is used in all cookie recipes. It is an important tenderizing ingredient. Undesolved sugar crystals melt during baking which contributes to the flow or spread of the cookies.
- Granulated Sugar The finer the granulation, the less the cookie will spread. On the hand, the larger the granulation, the more the cookie will spread.
- Powdered Sugar Powdered sugar is used when a fine-grained compact interior with little spread is desired.
- Brown Sugar Brown sugar is used to obtain a certain flavor. When brown sugar is used in place of granulated sugar, a small amount of baking soda should be used to neutralize the acid in brown sugar. By neutralizing the acid in brown sugar, the color of the crust will be improved because acids interfere with carmelization of sugar. Because of the soft sugar crystals present in brown sugar and because all brown sugar crystals dissolve during mixing, proper spread will not be obtained without formula adjustments.
- Molasses Molasses is used to obtain a particular flavor. Formulas containing molasses have to be adjusted by the addition of baking soda to compensate for the acidity. Also, an adjustment must be made in the amount of liquid.
- Honey Honey is also used to obtain a particular flavor. Honey adds a chewy quality to cookies.
Shortening promotes tenderness in the cookie and prevents excessive gluten development during mixing. Without shortening, cookie dough would be tough and rubbery, which would result in cookies being dry and lacking in eating qualities. Shortening contributes to the spread of the cookies. Regular hydrogenated shortening having a bland flavor is preferred and commonly used. Butter and margarine produce cookies with a more desirable taste and flavor.
Eggs are both tenderizers and tougheners in cookie baking. Egg yolks contain a very large percentage of fat which helps to tenderize the cookie. On the other hand, the egg whites acts as structure builders because of the proteins which coagulate during baking. Eggs also contribute moisture. Some cookie recipes such as macaroon coconut cookies call for egg whites. Whole eggs contribute the combined characterists of shortness, aeration, and tenderness.
Liquid in some form is necessary in all cookie recipes. Water is necessary to moisten the flour proteins to form gluten so the structure can be formed. Water also contributes to dough consistency and helps to control the temperature of the dough or batter. It also dissolves the chemicals in baking powder so that carbon dioxide can be produced to leaven the cookie and to assist in the spread of the cookie during baking.
Dry milk solids tend to exert a slight binding action on the doughs. Milk solids are a valuable addition to cookie recipes because they provide added nutritional value. The milk sugar lactose, adds to the richness of the crust color.
Leavening ingredients help to control spread or size, produces volume and promote proper crust color through regulation of acidity or alkalinity (pH) of the dough. Cookies that are hand dropped, deposited with a pastry tube, or machine deposited, need the spread control of leavening agents. An alkali such as baking soda exerts a weakening effect on the flour proteins (gluten) and helps to promote spreading. Since most cookie ingredients are neutral to slightly acid, they are usually sufficient to neutralize any reasonable quantity of baking soda added.
- Baking Soda (Bicarbonate of Soda) Bicarbonate of soda, an alkali salt can be added alone or as a component of baking powder. The alkalinity of baking soda lowers the carmelization point of sugar in the cookie dough or batter, causing faster and darker coloring of the crust. Soda also has a weakening effect on flour proteins. This action is more pronounced when soda is used without the counteracting food acid. Some of the alkalinity of the soda is neutralized by the natural acidity of the other ingredients in the formula. Too much soda will result in a chemical reaction between the fat in the formula and the soda. This will result in the cookie having a soapy taste.
- Cream of Tartar Cream of Tartar, a baking acid is used with soda as a leavening agent. A fast acting baking powder can be made by combining two parts of cream of tartar with one part baking soda. When cream of tartar is used without a counteracting alkali such as baking soda, it increases the acidity of the dough or batter. The higher acidity produces a whiter crumb color and a lighter crust color because sugar carmelizes at a higher temperature in an acid media.
- Baking Powder Baking Powder is a mixed blend of food acids of which there are several types and Bicarbonate of Soda with starch added to prevent the Baking Powder from lumping during storage. During the baking process the acid ingredients and the baking soda contained in the baking powder are dissolved in the liquid forming carbon dioxide gas. None of the acid nor the the soda remain in the finished product, because they neutralize each other.
- Salt Salt is used for its own flavor and to bring out the natural flavors of the other ingredients. The amount of salt must be reduced slightly when salted butter is used as the shortening ingredient in the recipe.
- Cocoa The use of cocoa requires an adjustment to the formula. Sugar is added to counteract the tendency of cocoa to toughen the dough and to sweeten and enhance the cocoa flavor. A slight adjustment in liquid may be necessary also.
- Miscellanous Flavors Oatmeal, peanuts, spices, chocolate chips and nuts can be used to produce particular flavors and textures. They are added as prescribed by the formula.
MIXING-There are two ways of mixing dough ingredients
The One-Stage Mixing Method is preferred because its simplicity reduces the possibility of errors. Sift the dry ingredients together. Place all the ingredients, both wet and dry into the mixing bowl and mix in slow speed until they form a smooth dough or batter.
The main portion of the sugar (about 75 percent), shortening, salt and vanilla are creamed together. The eggs are added in three parts and mixed until smooth after each addition. Add the liquids and stir. The flour, baking powder, and remaining sugar (about 25 percent) are sifted together and added. In this method of mixing, the longer the sugar and shortening are creamed, the less spread the product will have because the sugar crystals are broken up more thoroughly. Mixing for a long period of time after the flour has been added will develope the gluten excessively. This will result in cookies with insufficient spread. When a portion of the sugar is added in the final step with the flour, better spread will be obtained. Nut, raisins, and chocolate chips are added at the end of the mixing period and mixed only long enough to incorporate them in the dough or batter.
SUGAR COOKIES-Yield about 200 3-inch diameter cookies
|Milk nonfat dry||0||1-1/4th|
MIXING PROCEDURE: Use the One-Stage Method of Mixing described above
ICE BOX COOKIES - Yield about 250 cookies 3/4th ounce each
MIXING PROCEDURE: Use the One-Stage Method of Mixing described above
FRUIT BAR COOKIES - Yield about 200 1-1/2 inch by 3-1/2 inch bars
|Raisins or Nuts *||2||10|
* NOTE: Other fruits such as coconut, chopped dates, fruit cake mix, etc can be used also.
MIXING PROCEDURE: Use the One-Stage Method of Mixing described above
DEMONSTRATIONS ON MAKING A VARIETY OF HAND MADE COOKIES
Stiff-Batter Cookies Care must be taken to keep the dough uniform during the rolling operation (see demonstration below). Avoid the use of excessive dusting flour on the work bench. Some of the excessive dusting flour can be removed by using the bench brush. If excessive dusting flour still remains on the cookies after they are panned, they can be washed with egg wash.
Scale the dough into one or two pound pieces depending upon the length of the work bench.
Roll the dough into a round cylinder.
Using the dough scraper, cut the individual cookies about 1 inch long.
Using the squirrel cage cutter, cut individual cookies about 1 inch long. After cuttting the cookies, dip each cookie into a pan of granulated sugar. Pan cookies with sugar facing up on greased pans or on pans lined with a sheet of parchment paper.
Use a can or hands to flatten cookies slightly before baking. Bake at 375 degrees F. for about 10 minutes. When cookies fall while baking, they are usually baked. Another method of determining if cookies are baked, lift cookie up with a spatula. If brown on the bottom, the cookie is baked.
Loosen cookies from pan with spatula while still warm.
After icebox cookie dough has been divided into about 1 pound pieces, the dough is rolled into round cylinders about 2 inches in diameter, wrapped in parchment or wax paper, and chilled in the refrigerator. Then they are sliced with a sharp knife and panned fairly close together on ungreased pans since icebox cookies do not spread as most other types of cookies do.
To make pinwheel design icebox cookies, roll one piece of plain dough about 8 inches wide, 12 inches long and 1/2 inch thick. Prepare one piece of dough by mixing either chocolate or cocoa into the dough. Roll the dark piece of dough about 7-1/2 wide, 12 inches long and 1/2 inch thick. Note: A food color can be added to the smaller piece of dough if desired. Brush a very light coating of water or egg wash on the larger piece of dough. In the next step, the dark piece will be stacked on top of the plain piece.
Leave about 1/2 inch of plain dough not covered with dark dough. When the dough is rolled into a cylinder in the next step, the small portion not covered with the dark dough will be utilized to seal the cylinder. The cylinder is then rolled in parchment or wax paper and chilled in the refrigerator before slicing into individual cookies.
After the cylinder is formed, it is rolled in parchment or wax paper and chilled in the refrigerator.
With sharp knife slice cookies 1/4th inch thick and place on ungreased pans for baking.
Roll two pieces of plain dough and two pieces of dark dough to about 3/8th inch thick. Each of the 4 pieces should be of the sme weight. Brush 3 of the 4 pieces with a light coating of water or egg wash. Then stack the pieces on top of each other alternating the colors. Place the piece that has not been washed on last.
Using a sharp knife cut the four layers into strips approximately 1/2 inch thick. Then brush cut surface with a light coating of water or egg wash.
Stack the pieces on top of each other alternating the colors. Then carefully wrap the the dough in parchment or wax paper and chill in the refrigerator.
Using a sharp knife slice cookies 1/4th inch thick. Then place on ungreased pans for baking.
After the Fruit Bar Cookie dough has been scaled into 1 pound pieces, roll the dough into a cylinder about the length of the pan in which they will be baked.
On greased sheet pan or pan lined with parchment paper, transfer the Fruit Bar Cookie rolled dough from the work bench to the pan.
Using hands, flatten the cylinders slightly. At this point the cylinders can be washed with egg wash to produce a shine. Bake at 375 degrees F. for about 10 to 12 minutes. They can be iced with a Sweet Roll Icing while still hot or they can be left uniced.
The Fruit Bars should be cut with a dough scraper or other object while still hot.
SOFT BATTER COOKIES
VANILLA WAFERS, OATMEAL COOKIES, ETC. are classed as Soft Batter Cookies and may be dropped by hand or squeezed from a pastry tube, paper cone or dropped by machine.
VANILLA WAFERS - Yield about 200 3/4th ounce cookies
MIXING PROCEDURE: Use the One-Stage Method of Mixing described above.
OATMEAL COOKIES - Yield about 200 3-inch diameter cookies
|Raisins, chopped *||1||5|
MIXING PROCEDURE: Use the One-Stage Method of Mixing described above. *NOTE: The raisins should be soaked and drained before being chopped.
BROWNIES - Brownies come under the classification of Soft Batter Cookies. The following recipe yields 2 sheet pans or about 200 brownies 2 inches square.
MIXING PROCEDURE: Cream shortening and sugar in medium speed until light (about 5 minutes)
MIXING PROCEDURE: Add eggs and vanilla in slow speed in about 3 parts until all ingredients are well mixed.
MIXING PROCEDURE: Sift flour, baking powder, salt, and cocoa together. Add the sifted ingredients to above and mix in slow speed until a smooth batter results.
MIXING PROCEDURE: Add nuts to above mixture and mix in slow speed only long enough to incorporate. Do not overmix.
BAKING THE BROWNIES: Divide into two equal portions and spread evenly in two greased sheet pans or preferably grease bottom of sheet pan and line the pan with parchment paper. Bake at 325 to 350 degrees F. oven for about 30 minutes. Do not overbake. Cool and cut into 2-inch squares.
Dropping the oatmeal cookies on greased sheet pan by hand.
Dropping the oatmeal cookies on greased sheet pan using pastry bag.
Shown are a variety of baked icebox cookies.
Shown are a variety of baked cookies and fruit bars.
The hand operated cookie machine shown above is for use in small retail bakeries. Capable of producing up to 300 cookies per minute. Cookie weight can range between 1/4th ounce to 5 ounces. Over 60 different shapes of cookies can be made. Courtesy RHODES KOOk(E)kING.
The electric operated cookie machine shown above is for use in small and medium size bakeries. Cookie weight can range between 1 ounce to 6 ounces. CHAMPION 95 COOKIE DEPOSITOR courtesy CMC AMERICA CORP.
The next 4 pieces of cookie making equipment is used in very large cookie baking operations. Courtesy of the American Society of Bakery Engineers Annual Convention Proceedings.
The above photo shows a wire cut cookie machine feeding cookies directly onto the band of the oven just before they enter the oven.
The above photo shows a view of a wire cut machine feeding cookies onto pans just before they enter the oven.
The photo of oven above shows a view of a recirculating type oven, showing a three burner section oven, each section having one burner supplying heat for the 50 foot section.
The above photo shows a view of a one section recirculating oven in the background, with the cooling conveyor in the foreground.
This completes the information on Cookie Baking.